15) Role of perinatal long-chain omega-3 fatty acids in cortical circuit maturation: Mechanisms and implications for psychopathology

McNamara RK et al World J Psychiatr 2015 March 22; 5(1): 15-34

“Over the past 30 years a body of evidence from animal and clinical studies supports the general assertion that normal brain development requires optimal DHA levels. Rodent studies suggest that cortical DHA has neurotropic as well as neuroprotective properties in the developing and adult brain”
DHA may play a role in microglia-mediated synaptic pruning, as well as myelin development and resilience

“Preterm birth, which results in deficits in third trimester fetal cortical DHA accrual, is associated with enduring prefrontal cortical network connectivity deficits and a spectrum of neurocognitive impairments which may be mitigated by postnatal high-dose DHA supplementation

DHA supplementation increased cortical activity in prefrontal regions, and decreased activity in the temporal cortex and cerebellum, during performance of sustained attention task in healthy developing children