DHA treatment normalized the above oxidative stress makers and prevented the decrease in cell viability caused by the high glucose exposure.
DHA shows cytoprotective properties and is widely used as an antioxidant under various conditions.
DHA is typically present in the eye, protecting retina from oxidative damage and also preventing diabetes-related rod photoreceptor dysfunction. Notably, the content of DHA in both retina and RPE was decreased in diabetes. DHA seemed to exert its protective effects by different ways, including serving passively as part of cell membranes and impacting transcription of redox-sensitive genes.
Indeed, DHA inhibited NO-iNOS production and the transcription of other pro-inflammatory genes
The anti-inflammatory and antioxidative action of DHA seemed to occur through a mechanism that involves the activation of nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf-2) and the up-regulation of Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1)
The cytoprotective effects of HNE appeared to result from its potential anti-inflammatory and antioxidative properties, which might make DHA a promising agent for the intervention in diabetic retinopathy.